Contributed by Stacy E. Walker, PhD, ATC, provided conception and design; acquisition and analysis and interpretation of the data; and drafting, critical revision, and final approval of the article.
History[ edit ] The earliest documentation of critical thinking are the teachings of Socrates recorded by Plato. Socrates established the fact that Critical thinking learning theory cannot depend upon those in "authority" to have sound knowledge and insight.
He demonstrated that persons may have power and high position and yet be deeply confused and irrational. He established the importance of asking deep questions that probe profoundly into thinking before we accept ideas as worthy of belief.
He established the importance of seeking evidence, closely examining reasoning and assumptions, analyzing basic concepts, and tracing out implications not only of what is said but of what is done as well.
His method of questioning is now known as "Socratic Questioning" and is the best known critical thinking teaching strategy.
In his mode of questioning, Socrates highlighted the need for thinking for clarity and logical consistency. Socrates asked people questions to reveal their irrational thinking or lack of reliable knowledge. Socrates demonstrated that having authority does not ensure accurate knowledge.
He established the method of questioning beliefs, closely inspecting assumptions and relying on evidence and sound rationale.
Critical thinking was described by Richard W. Paul as a movement in two waves Its details vary amongst those who define it. According to Barry K. Beyercritical thinking means making clear, reasoned judgments.
During the process of critical thinking, ideas should be reasoned, well thought out, and judged. National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking  defines critical thinking as the "intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.
Definitions[ edit ] Traditionally, critical thinking has been variously defined as follows: Critical thinking is inward-directed with the intent of maximizing the rationality of the thinker.
Some definitions of critical thinking exclude these subjective practices. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message The ability to reason logically is a fundamental skill of rational agents, hence the study of the form of correct argumentation is relevant to the study of critical thinking.
It followed a philosophy where the thinker was removed from the train of thought and the connections and the analysis of the connect was devoid of any bias of the thinker. Kerry Walters describes this ideology in his essay Beyond Logicism in Critical Thinking, "A logistic approach to critical thinking conveys the message to students that thinking is legitimate only when it conforms to the procedures of informal and, to a lesser extent, formal logic and that the good thinker necessarily aims for styles of examination and appraisal that are analytical, abstract, universal, and objective.
This model of thinking has become so entrenched in conventional academic wisdom that many educators accept it as canon". Walters Re-thinking Reason,p. Walters summarizes logicism as "the unwarranted assumption that good thinking is reducible to logical thinking".
Rationality and logic are still widely accepted in many circles as the primary examples of critical thinking. Deduction, abduction and induction[ edit ] Main article: Deduction is the conclusion of a consequence given premises that logically follow by modus ponens.
Induction is drawing a conclusion from a pattern that is guaranteed by the strictness of the structure to which it applies. Abduction is drawing a conclusion using a heuristic that is likely, but not inevitable given some foreknowledge.
Contrast with the deductive statement: Walters Re-thinking Reason, argues that rationality demands more than just logical or traditional methods of problem solving and analysis or what he calls the "calculus of justification" but also considers " cognitive acts such as imaginationconceptual creativity, intuition and insight" p.
These "functions" are focused on discovery, on more abstract processes instead of linear, rules-based approaches to problem-solving. The linear and non-sequential mind must both be engaged in the rational mind.
But so is the ability to be flexible and consider non-traditional alternatives and perspectives. These complementary functions are what allow for critical thinking to be a practice encompassing imagination and intuition in cooperation with traditional modes of deductive inquiry.
According to Reynoldsan individual or group engaged in a strong way of critical thinking gives due consideration to establish for instance: Critical thinking employs not only logic but broad intellectual criteria such as clarity, credibilityaccuracyprecision, relevancedepth, breadthsignificance, and fairness.
Critical thinkers therefore need to have reached a level of maturity in their development, possess a certain attitude as well as a set of taught skills. Research[ edit ] Edward M.For Student Success and Career Development, or Critical Thinking courses.
Written by two of the leading experts in the field, this book's approach to critical thinking is as a process for taking charge of and responsibility for one’s thinking. The Foundation is a non-profit organization that seeks to promote essential change in education and society through the cultivation of fairminded critical thinking--thinking which embodies intellectual empathy, intellectual humility, intellectual perseverance, intellectual integrity and intellectual responsibility.
The Power of Critical Theory is Brookfield’s attempt to put the “critical” back into critical thinking by emphasizing that it is an inherently political process.
The book presents powerful arguments for the importance of critical theory in fostering the kind of learning that leads to a truly democratic society, and it explores a number of tasks for adult learners including learning to. Critical thinking is significant in academics due to being significant in learning.
Critical thinking is significant in the learning process of internalization, in the construction of basic ideas, principles, and theories inherent in content.
And critical thinking is significant in the learning process of application, whereby those ideas. learning theory of Malcolm Knowles in his studies of how adults learn. There are is a critical step in effective training (dialogue, questions, prompts to critical thinking) • Assessing performance (both in the moment and end-state) • Enhancing retention and transfer.
Critical theory is a philosophy that involves being critical of the prevailing view of society. In many cases, that means looking closer at beliefs that might favor privileged people, like rich.