Introduction Evolution itself is simply the process of change over time. When applied to biology, evolution generally refers to changes in life forms over time. The Theory of Biological Evolution is most often associated with Charles Darwin, because it was Charles Darwin that proposed the mechanism of natural selection and accompanied that proposition with a large volume of empirical data providing evidence for biological evolution.
It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent. In lateEckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [ 17 ].
To illustrate with a quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [ 34 ], "We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic.
You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1, simple trajectories.
To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [ 9 ].
Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologiesand at the Educational Testing Servicewhich dedicated its largest building to him in Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others.
Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the, and other machines. Out of professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name which generally does not indicate gender.
This consists primarily of 1 numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; 2 complete checking of the lunar theory; 3 computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; 4 the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and 5 problems of stellar statistics.
Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated. InSoviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to "stellar research" in his own lab at St.
Petersburg University in Moscow.
The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition Leningrad Region says as of 12 Sep "An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring.
His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in In he was rehabilitated. In Junea letter arrives for Eckert from V. Jan Schiltnow in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington.
In AugustI. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply cc'd to Schilt: May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr.
Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation]. It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation.
I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr.
Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies.
Was Riazankin a spy?(see Gaelscoileanna for the Irish language primary level sector). The content of this is left to the school to model on the local needs.
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Paul Kingsnorth is a writer and poet living in Cumbria, England. He is the author of several books, including the poetry collection Kidland and his fictional debut The Wake, winner of the Gordon Burn Prize and the Bookseller Book of the Year Award.
Kingsnorth is the cofounder and director of the Dark Mountain Project, a network of writers, artists, and thinkers.